Key Challenges in Sanitizing Transportation Data to Protect Sensitive Information

As new mobility services such as ridehailing and shared micromobility have grown, so has the quantity of data available about how and where people travel. Transportation data provides government agencies and transportation companies with valuable information that can be used for identifying traffic patterns, predicting infrastructure needs, informing city planning, and other purposes. However, the data may also contain sensitive information that can identify individuals, the beginning and ending points of their trips, and other details that raise concerns about personal privacy. Even if a traveler’s name and address is suppressed, adversaries could use other parts of the information such a..

Transport Economics

Real-World Simulations of Life with an Autonomous Vehicle Suggest Increased Mobility and Vehicle Travel

Fully autonomous vehicles are expected to have a profound effect on travel behavior. The technology will provide convenience and better mobility for many, allowing owners to perform other tasks while traveling, summon their vehicles from a distance, and send vehicles off to complete tasks without them. These travel behaviors could lead to increases in vehicle miles traveled that will have major implications for traffic congestion and pollution. To estimate the extent to which travel behavior will change, researchers and planners have typically relied on adjustments to existing travel simulations or on surveys asking people how they would change their behavior in a hypothetical autonomous veh..

Transport Economics

Panel Study of Emerging Transportation Technologies and Trends in California: Phase 2 Findings

Emerging transportation services, whose development and adoption have been enabled by information and communication technology, are largely transforming people’s travel and activity patterns. This study investigates the emerging transportation trends and how they transform travel-related decision-making in the population at large through the application of a unique longitudinal approach. As part of this project, a second wave of data collection in 2018 was built with a rotating panel structure as a continuation of the research efforts that started with the collection of the 2015 California Millennials Dataset. This report focuses on the analyses of the data collected in this project, in pa..

Transport Economics

Sanitization of Transportation Data: Policy Implications and Gaps

Data about mobility provides information to improve city planning, identify traffic patterns, detect traffic jams, and route vehicles around them. This data often contains proprietary and personal information that companies and individuals do not wish others to know, for competitive and personal reasons. This sets up a paradox: the data needs to be analyzed, but it cannot be without revealing information that must be kept secret. A solution is to sanitize the data—i.e., remove or suppress the sensitive information. The goal of sanitization is to protect sensitive information while enabling analyses of the data that will produce the same results as analyses of the unsanitized data. However,..

Transport Economics

Impacts of Transportation Network Companies on Vehicle Miles Traveled, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Travel Behavior Analysis from the Washington D.C., Los Angeles, and San Francisco Markets

Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) like Lyft, Uber, and their global counterparts have expanded around the world over the past decade and have changed the way that people travel around cities and regions. The individual mobility benefits provided by TNCs have been clear. Passengers can summon a vehicle quickly via smartphone from almost anywhere to take them almost anywhere, with advance communication on estimated wait time, travel time, and cost. TNCs may also provide users with added mobility benefits, especially for those living in areas where public transit service is infrequent or non-existent. However, the growing popularity of TNCs has forced important questions about their impac..

Transport Economics

Dynamic Routing to Improve the Efficiency of Ride-Sharing

Traffic congestion causes significant economic costs, wasted time, and public health risks. Ride-sharing, defined as a joint trip of more than two participants who share a vehicle that requires coordination among itineraries, has the potential to help mitigate congestion. A good ride-sharing system should provide quick response to passenger requests while identifying routes with minimum travel time. This is not an easy task, especially with dynamic passenger requests, variable request times, and cancelations of existing requests. One way to mitigate the effect of these uncertainties is to allow passengers to walk to a designated pick-up spot while waiting for the drivers, which can improve t..

Transport Economics

Dynamic Routing for Ride-Sharing

The research report explored the use of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes and meeting points in a ride-sharing system where drivers have their own origin and destination. A two-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed, which consists of an insertion heuristic to solve the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) problem and a second stage algorithm that can solve the meeting points problem optimally in polynomial time. The experimental results show that the HOV lanes and meeting points can increase the efficiency of a dynamic ride-sharing system. View the NCST Project Webpage

Transport Economics

Microscopic Simulation of Decentralized Dispatching Strategies in Railways

This paper analyzes the effectiveness of decentralized strategies for dispatching rolling stock and train drivers in a railway system. Such strategies give operators a robust alternative in case centralized control fails due to an abundance of infrastructure or rolling stock disruptions or information system malfunctions. We test the performance of four rolling stock and two driver dispatching strategies in a microscopic simulation. Our test case is a part of the Dutch railway network, containing eleven stations linked by four train lines. We find that with the decentralized dispatching strategies, target frequencies of the lines are approximately met and train services are highly regular wi..

Transport Economics

Cost-effective reduction of fossil energy use in the European transport sector: An assessment of the Fit for 55 Package

This paper surveys climate and energy policy in the EU transport sector covering the road, aviation, and shipping sectors. We summarise current policies, focusing on the Fit for 55 Package, and categorise them according to their targeted decision stage (consumption, investment, or research) and the type of instrument being used (e.g. cap-and-trade, tax, mandate, performance standard, or subsidy). Next, we analyse the cost-efficiency of the different policies and instruments. We find that they address a range of market inefficiencies, but that there are still a number of aspects that can further improve the cost-effectiveness of current EU climate policies in the transport sector. For example..

Transport Economics

Is the monocentric urban economic model still empirically relevant? Assessing urban econometric predictions in 192 cities on five continents

Despite a large body of work that developed over more than 60 years, and numerous applications in theoretical papers, the empirical knowledge accumulated on the monocentric urban model and its extensions remains limited. Using a unique dataset gathering spatially explicit data on rents, population densities, housing sizes, and transport times in neighborhoods inside 192 cities on all continents, we investigate on a systematic basis the empirical relevance of the key stylized facts predicted by this model. Some of these predictions appear extremely robust: cities are more spread out when they are richer, more populated, and when transportation or agricultural land is less costly, and 95\% of ..

Transport Economics

Incentive-Based Electric Vehicle Charging for Managing Bottleneck Congestion

We propose an incentive-based traffic demand management policy to alleviate traffic congestion on a road stretch that creates a bottleneck for the commuters. The incentive targets electric vehicles owners by proposing a discount on the energy price they use to charge their vehicles if they are flexible in their departure time. We show that, with a sufficient monetary budget, it is possible to completely eliminate the traffic congestion and we compute the optimal discount. We analyse also the case of limited budget, when the congestion cannot be completely eliminated. We compute analytically the policy minimising the congestion and estimate the level of inefficiency for different budgets. We ..

Transport Economics

Incorporating Search and Sales Information in Demand Estimation

We propose an approach to modeling and estimating discrete choice demand that allows for a large number of zero sale observations, rich unobserved heterogeneity, and endogenous prices. We do so by modeling small market sizes through Poisson arrivals. Each of these arriving consumers then solves a standard discrete choice problem. We present a Bayesian IV estimation approach that addresses sampling error in product shares and scales well to rich data environments. The data requirements are traditional market-level data and measures of consumer search intensity. After presenting simulation studies, we consider an empirical application of air travel demand where product-level sales are sparse. ..

Transport Economics

Post-Covid Recovery Scenarios for the Travel Industry

Abstract We assess the recovery of the Finnish travel industry from the covid19 pandemic in 2021–2023. The subject of the study is air and sea passenger traffic, the food service (restaurant) and accommodation industries. The Covid19 virus has proven to be capable of mutations, and the pandemic is by no means over. This increases uncertainty, especially with regard to the recovery of international travel. The travel industry will recover with vaccine coverage and when the pandemic will otherwise subside, but it will take a long time for business travel and intercontinental air transport to recover to pre-pandemic levels.

Transport Economics

A sound environment: health effects of traffic noise mitigation

This study investigates the health effects of a nationwide program that provided noise mitigation to dwellings. The analysis uses hospitalization records and a difference-in- differences model that compares residents in treated homes to those with similar at- tributes in untreated homes. Results show that noise mitigation measures lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 10% after seven years, with effects driven by reduced risk of hypertension. Health effects are larger among the population exposed to higher baseline noise levels. These findings suggest that implementing similar noise mitigation measures will produce meaningful health benefits.

Transport Economics

Optimal frequency of public transport in a small city: examination of a simple method

This study identifies the welfare optimal frequency of a scheduled public transport service from a methodological perspective, exploring what methods are more suitable for the case of bus services in a small city. The study examines how well various versions of the square-root rule, including established and newly proposed versions, estimate the optimal bus frequencies in the case city of Uppsala, versus estimates generated by a more comprehensive partial equilibrium model. The results indicate that extending the square-root rule by including transfer time, as proposed here, is empirically important. Furthermore, the results indicate that the square-root rule, with this extension, can estima..

Transport Economics

Brace for impact! COVID-19, lockdown and the initial reaction and adaptability of Flemish travel consumers

Purpose: To determine the influence of COVID-19 and the first 2020 lockdown on Flemish people's initial travel behaviour perceptions, a hypothetical scenario was posed to respondents where they were asked to keep in mind a situation where they might be able to travel again during the summer of 2020 (July/August). This research had two main aims: i) the pre-lockdown travel plans for summer 2020 were determined; ii) the extent to which respondents would adapt their travel behaviour if they were hypothetically allowed to travel again by summer 2020. Methods: This exploratory research was done by means of an online quantitative questionnaire of which 1803(n) complete responses were obtained thro..

Transport Economics

Health precautions while traveling after COVID-19

Purpose: The tourism industry needs to identify potential tourists' planned behavior after COVID-19 and prepare accordingly. This study was conducted in Israel during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. This research focused on different types of precautionary measures used by the tourists and how perceived risk of getting sick with COVID-19 while traveling abroad as well as risk perceptions and attitudes about travel abroad might affect tourists' intentions to adopt precautionary measures when planning future travel abroad. Methods: This research is based on an online survey questionnaire distributed during March 2020 among four hundred and six Israeli participants. Results: The analytical mo..

Transport Economics

Impact of Transportation Cost Variations on the Relative Market Shares for Different Transportation Modes: A Network Model

Transport Economics

Impact of Transportation Cost Variations on the Relative Market Shares for Different Transportation Modes: A Network Model

Transport Economics

Pavement Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Tool for Local Governments

The processes in the pavement life cycle can be defined as: material extraction and production; construction; transport of materials and demolition; the use stage, where the pavement interacts with other systems; the materials, construction, and transport associated with maintenance and rehabilitation; and end-of-life. Local governments are increasingly being asked to quantify greenhouse gas emissions from their operations and identify changes to reduce emissions. There are many possible strategies that local governments can choose to reduce their emissions, however, prioritization and selection of which to implement can be difficult if emissions cannot be quantified. Pavement life cycle ass..

Transport Economics

Certification of low-carbon hydrogen in the transport market

This paper develops a theoretical framework to study the deployment of free-of-emissions green hydrogen in the transport sector. We consider a vertically related market with hydrogen producers upstream and fuel stations downstream. Production technologies differ in cost efficiency and carbon emissions. We show that when consumers have limited information about the hydrogen origin, no new green producers are able to enter the market. A label for green hydrogen allows multiple production technologies to co-exist, but society is better off when producers use vertical restraints to increase consumers' information.

Transport Economics

How is the COVID-19 Pandemic Shifting Retail Purchases and Related Travel in the Sacramento Region?

A significant portion of the population stayed, and continue to stay, at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic. With more people staying home, online shopping increased along with trips related to pickups and deliveries. To gain a better understanding of the change in retail purchases and related travel, UC Berkeley researchers compared pre-pandemic shopping to pandemic-related shifts in consumer purchases in the greater Sacramento area for nine types of essential and non-essential commodities (e.g., groceries, meals, clothing, paper products, cleaning supplies). In May 2020, the research team resampled 327 respondents that participated in the 2018 Sacramento Area Council of Governments (SACOG) ..

Transport Economics

Airport-Airline Coordination with Economic, Environmental and Social Considerations

In this paper, we examine the effect of various contracts between a socially concerned airport and an environmentally conscious airline regarding their profitability and channel coordination under two distinct settings. First, we consider no government interventions, while in the second, we explore government-imposed taxations to curb emissions. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of passenger greening sensitivity, greening cost, and consumer surplus coefficient on conveyance fees, ticket fare, greening level and the channel welfare. Our analysis shows that the revenue sharing and linear two part tariff contracts coordinate the decentralised airport-airline channel. Our findings also reve..

Transport Economics

Immediate and Longer-Term Housing Market Effects of a Major U.S. Airport Closure

A busy airport’s closure has large effects on noise, real estate markets, and neighborhood demographics. Using a unique dataset, we examine the effects of closing Denver’s Stapleton Airport on nearby housing markets. We find evidence of immediate anticipatory price effects upon announcement, but no price changes at closing and little evidence of upward trending prices between announcement and closing. However, after the airport closure, more higher-income and fewer black households moved in, and developers built higher quality houses. Finally, post-closing, these demographic and housing stock changes had substantial housing price effects, even after restricting the sample to pre-existing..

Transport Economics

Do Cohesion Funds foster regional trade integration? A structural gravity analysis for the EU regions

This paper uses a structural gravity model to explore the regional trade and welfare impact of the EU Cohesion Policy Transport Infrastructure Investment programme estimated using a novel dataset of the Generalised Transport Costs for the EU regions at the NUTS2 level. The results indicate that on average additional investment in transport infrastructure can increase NUTS2 total regional exports by 0.40% and regional real GDP 1.13%. Central and Eastern European Regions enjoy the highest exports and GDP gains, while few Western European regions experience a negligible decrease in wages, which may occur as a result of factor price convergence.

Transport Economics

Brazil's Transportation Infrastructure and Competitiveness in the Soybean Market

In 2013, Brazil surpassed the United States to become the world's largest soybean exporter. Brazil's soybean production and exports have accelerated since its trade liberalization in the mid-1990s, and it has gained extra competitiveness over the United States in the export market during the US-China trade war, when China imposed several waves of retaliatory tariffs on US soybeans. For interested readers, a tool is available on the CARD website that shows historical revealed comparative advantages for six leading export countries. In the 2019/20 marketing year, Brazil's soybean exports reached 92 million metric tons, about twice that of US soybean exports. While Brazil's increasing competiti..

Transport Economics

Minimal utilization rates for railway maintenance windows: a cost-benefit approach

Methods for economic assessment, e.g., cost-benefit analysis, are often used in the rail sector to evaluate large infrastructure investments such as building new high-speed railway lines. With larger railway networks and aging infrastructure, these methods can also be used for maintenance planning decisions. In this paper, we focus on basic maintenance and the newly introduced concept of maintenance windows in Sweden. These are pre-allocated slots in the annual train timetable dedicated to performing, among others, periodic/frequent maintenance activities such as inspections, maintenance and repairs. To justify the pre-allocation of such windows, this study presents a method to find minimal ..

Transport Economics

Can repeated surveys reveal the variation of the value of travel time over time?

This paper studies intertemporal changes in the value of travel time (VTT) and investigates whether the change of VTT over time can be studied based on national VTT data, collected at two points in time. We use repeated national VTT data from the Netherlands and Sweden, collected 13 and 14 years apart. The results show mostly a declining VTT for a given income level. The results show also a large within-country heterogeneity across modes and purposes, in the cross-sectional income elasticity of the VTT, and in its development over time. The explanation most consistent with our results and those of others is that the VTT has in fact increased due to income increases, but that the repeated sta..

Transport Economics

Optimising the acceptance of electric vehicles for urban logistics with evidence from France and Germany

So far, electric vehicles have not become a wide-spread alternative for the long-time dominating diesel vehicles in urban logistics. If this is to be changed, it is important to identify logistics applications for electric vehicles which are not geographically limited, to understand what improves user acceptance and how to measure the attractiveness of electric vehicles for users. The aim of this research is to contribute to answering these questions, based on evidence from France and Germany. For this purpose, findings from empirical research carried out in the form of pilot studies and surveys in Germany is analysed as the basis for the identification of user acceptance. By means of a basi..

Transport Economics

The Causal Effect of Transport Infrastructure: Evidence from a New Historical Database

In this paper, we analyze the effect of transport infrastructure investments in railways. As a testing ground, we use data from a new historical database that includes annual panel data on approximately 2,400 Swedish rural geographical areas during the period 1860-1917. We use a staggered event study design that is robust to treatment effect heterogeneity. Importantly, we find extremely large reduced-form effects of having access to railways. For real nonagricultural income, the cumulative treatment effect is approximately 130% after 30 years. Equally important, we also show that our reduced-form effect is likely to reflect growth rather than a reorganization of existing economic activity si..

Transport Economics