Brace for impact! COVID-19, lockdown and the initial reaction and adaptability of Flemish travel consumers

Purpose: To determine the influence of COVID-19 and the first 2020 lockdown on Flemish people's initial travel behaviour perceptions, a hypothetical scenario was posed to respondents where they were asked to keep in mind a situation where they might be able to travel again during the summer of 2020 (July/August). This research had two main aims: i) the pre-lockdown travel plans for summer 2020 were determined; ii) the extent to which respondents would adapt their travel behaviour if they were hypothetically allowed to travel again by summer 2020. Methods: This exploratory research was done by means of an online quantitative questionnaire of which 1803(n) complete responses were obtained thro..

Tourism Economics

Using sentiment analysis in tourism research: A systematic, bibliometric, and integrative review

Purpose: Sentiment analysis is built from the information provided through text (reviews) to help understand the social sentiment toward their brand, product, or service. The main purpose of this paper is to draw an overview of the topics and the use of the sentiment analysis approach in tourism research. Methods: The study is a bibliometric analysis (VOSviewer), with a systematic and integrative review. The search occurred in March 2021 (Scopus) applying the search terms "sentiment analysis" and "tourism" in the title, abstract, or keywords, resulting in a final sample of 111 papers. Results: This analysis pointed out that China (35) and the United States (24) are the leading countries stud..

Tourism Economics

Health precautions while traveling after COVID-19

Purpose: The tourism industry needs to identify potential tourists' planned behavior after COVID-19 and prepare accordingly. This study was conducted in Israel during the initial outbreak of COVID-19. This research focused on different types of precautionary measures used by the tourists and how perceived risk of getting sick with COVID-19 while traveling abroad as well as risk perceptions and attitudes about travel abroad might affect tourists' intentions to adopt precautionary measures when planning future travel abroad. Methods: This research is based on an online survey questionnaire distributed during March 2020 among four hundred and six Israeli participants. Results: The analytical mo..

Tourism Economics

Shaping digitalization among German tourism service providers: Processes and implications

Purpose: This study addresses the digital transformation in tourism, accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. By linking the front-and backstage activities, a model of the tourism value system is sketched with the aim to assist the shift toward digital value creation in the case of the German tourism sector by asking, What are the challenges for the digital transformation of tourism service providers, and how can it be promoted along with the tourism value system? Methods: Recognizing the processual challenges of digitalization, this contribution builds upon a mixedmethods approach. First, a quantitative online survey (n = 372) was conducted by the German Competence Center for Tourism at th..

Tourism Economics

The impact of Covid-19 on international tourism flows to Italy: evidence from mobile phone data

This paper analyses the response to the COVID-19 pandemic of inbound tourism to Italy looking at variation across countries and across provinces. To this end, it uses weekly data on the number of foreign visitors in Italy from January 2019 until February 2021, as provided by a primary mobile phone operator. We document a very robust negative relation at province level between local epidemiological conditions and the inflow of foreign travellers. Moreover, provinces with a historically higher share of art tourism, and those that used to be ‘hotel intensive’ were hit the most during the pandemic, while provinces with a more prevalent orientation towards business tourism proved to ..

Tourism Economics

ON THE CHOICE OF ACCOMMODATION TYPE AT THE TIME OF COVID-19. SOME EVIDENCE FROM THE ITALIAN TOURISM SECTOR

This note focuses on the impact of coronavirus on Italian tourism. Using a sample of 1056 travellers, we find a positive relationship between the security of destination and the probability to accommodate in hotels and B&B. Furthermore, regional contagion is negatively associated to the willingness to pay for accommodation services. The policy implications are twofold. Firstly, hotels/B&B claim for financial support to ensure social distancing and, thus, security that will attract tourists. Secondly, public finance could sustain the demand of tourist services in hotels and B&B which is lowering because of coronavirus.

Tourism Economics

COVID-19 Impact on Socioeconomic in the Hospitality Industry

"Objective - This paper provides an overview of the COVID-19 crisis and the impact of restriction orders on the hospitality industry in Malaysia. The authors review existing studies related to COVID-19 and the hospitality industry while focusing on challenges faced by the hospitality industry in Malaysia. Then, the authors summarize the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 on the hospitality industry. Methodology/Technique - This paper examines previous COVID-19 related research published in top-tier hospitality journals during the pandemic period of December 2019 to September 2021. Research studies were categorized by topic area, hospitality industry segment, and research methods used. Addition..

Tourism Economics

G20 Rome guidelines for the future of tourism: OECD Report to G20 Tourism Working Group

The G20 Rome guidelines for the future of tourism identifies key issues and opportunities to rethink and reshape tourism policy in response to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. It presents guidelines for action that are informed by the need to a) restore confidence and enable recovery, b) learn from the experience of the pandemic, and c) prioritise a sustainable development agenda in guiding future tourism. They are based around seven interrelated policy areas: i) safe mobility, ii) crisis management; iii) resilience; iv) inclusiveness; v) green transformation; vi) digital transition; and vii) investment and infrastructure. The G20 Rome guidelines were endorsed in the Rome Communiqué of..

Tourism Economics

A policy proposal to deal with excessive cultural tourism

This paper presents a proposal to deal with cultural overtourism causing substantial negative effects. They burden the local population, tourists, and the natural environment by overcrowding, vandalism, and pollution. While at present tourism is suppressed by governments due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it will likely become a major issue again in the future. Our proposal allows us to think about the way cultural tourism should be organized in the future and how to mitigate the negative externalities affecting cultural heritage as well as the local population and the natural environment. As an innovation to overcome these problems, the heavily visited historical sites are to be replicated in a ..

Tourism Economics

Economic valuation of tourism of the Sundarban Mangroves, Bangladesh

The Sundarban Reserve Forest (SRF) of Bangladesh provides tourism services to local and international visitors. Indeed, tourism is one of the major ecosystem services that this biodiversity-rich mangrove forest provides. Through a convenient sampling technique, 421 tourist respondents were interviewed to assess their willingness to pay for the tourism services of the Sundarban, using the Zonal Travel Cost Method (ZTCM). The estimated annual economic contribution of tourism in the Sundarban mangroves to the Bangladesh economy is USD 53 million. The findings of this study showed that facilities for watching wildlife and walking inside the forest can increase the number of tourists in the SRF. ..

Tourism Economics

Diversion of Tourism Flows in the Asia & Pacific Region: Lessons for COVID-19 Recovery

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a collapse in international tourism, severely impacting the tourism-dependent economies in the Asia & Pacific region. Once countries start reopening, tourism diversion effects could accelerate the recovery in countries that establish themselves as more attractive travel destinations than competitors. We investigate the impact of previous shocks in tourism competitor countries on visitor inflows, with a particular focus on tourism-dependent Pacific Island Countries (PICs). We find that PICs were generally resilient to external shocks and benefitted from diversion effects for certain types of shocks. For example, the share of departures from Australia to PICs inc..

Tourism Economics

Airbnb and hotels during COVID-19: different strategies to survive

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the traditional hotel industry and Airbnb in nine major European cities. The author examines differences between the two business models and analyses various strategies of Airbnb hosts to cope with the crisis. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed empirical analysis is presented based on data from STR and Inside Airbnb for the period January 2018–September 2020. To assess the impact of the pandemic on the hotel industry, year-to-year changes in various performance metrics are presented. The author also investigates the impact of the pandemic on Airbnb prices with panel data regression analysis. Using ..

Tourism Economics

The Impact of Destination Image on Tourist's Behavioral Intentions: Case of the Essaouira City

In a tourism destination, tourists are the main factor and what matters is to attract them. Therefore, in the competitive context of tourism destinations, those who can create, enhance and differentiate their image are more successful as they improve their popularity, reputation, and ability to attract more tourists in the future. Hence, we can infer that the image of the destination is one of effective marketing tools to attract more tourists. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of destination images on behavioral intentions. More specifically, we investigate the impact of cognitive and affective destination image on intentions to revisit and recommend the destination among p..

Tourism Economics

Domestic Tourism as a Pathway to Revive the Tourism Industry and Business Post the COVID-19 Pandemic

This research aims to explore the potential of domestic tourism as a means to revitalise the tourism industry from the perspectives of local residents and tourism players. A quantitative online survey focused on domestic travel behaviour, motivation, places of interest, travel preferences, and willingness to travel within Malaysia; it was answered by 219 Malaysians. Interview data were collected using structured, open-ended interview questions through emails to eight respondents from tourism associations, five from the hotel sector, and two from the travel and tour sector. Data collection was carried out from 10 January to 15 February 2021. The findings reveal that domestic tourism has the p..

Tourism Economics

Tourism in Central America and the Dominican Republic in the face of digital technologies. Challenges and opportunities for MSMEs

Tourism micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) recognize the importance of digital tools to attract tourists, showcase the company and sell products and services. However, they make basic use of these tools to communicate and promote the company, missing opportunities to improve their competitiveness, productivity and sustainability. This study analyses the state of the digital transformation of tourism MSMEs in the member States of the Central American Integration System (SICA), both their internal capacities and external conditions that affect their ability to innovate. The study follows a cross-cutting gender analysis and describes the innovation capacity of rural tourism compa..

Tourism Economics

Restarting tourism, travel and hospitality: The day after

Book of extended abstracts (proceedings) of TOURMAN 2021 Conference "Restarting tourism, travel and hospitality: The day after".

Tourism Economics

The Adoption of Circular Economy Principles in the Hotel Industry

Objective - The aim of this study is to explore the awareness level of CE concept and to assess the adoption of the CE principles in the hotel industry. Methodology/Technique - This study employed a qualitative method. In depth interviews were addressed to hotel managers. The hotels were chosen based on three categories: local, national chain and international chain hotel. Observation of evidence was also used to analyze information from existing condition. Findings - The findings pointed out the awareness level of CE concept in each hotel categories. It also revealed how hotels adopt CE principles in their daily business routine and how they see the aforementioned concept as one of the fact..

Tourism Economics

The opportunities of accessible tourism for disabled people

This article describes the issues of the attitude and attention that need to be paid to a people with impairments in offering them some tourism services. Many organizations treat handicapped people with unfair discrimination, and the profits from this kind of tourism market are often underestimated. However, the analysis of niche market and the statistics demonstrate the true picture of possible profitable potential of handicapped tourists: the more the tourism destinations for disabled people are adapted, the higher the quality of this tourism destination will be.

Tourism Economics

A model of factors affecting domestic tourist satisfaction on eco-tourism service quality in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

The objective of the present study is to explore the factors affecting domestic tourists’ satisfaction with the quality of ecotourism services. Survey data collected from 457 visitors visiting Mekong Delta, Vietnam were analyzed to provide evidence. Results from multiple regression analysis using SPSS software have determined that Food and beverage Shopping & entertainment services, Perceived price, Nature destination landscape, Security and Safety, Transportation had positive associations with domestic travelers’ satisfaction. Besides, this research also showed that female tourists tend to be more satisfied than male tourists. The main findings of this study provide practical implicatio..

Tourism Economics

COVID-19 Tourism Recovery in the ASEAN and East Asia Region: Asymmetric Patterns and Implications

The aim of this paper is to produce forecasts for tourism flows and tourism revenue for ASEAN and East Asian countries after the end of the COVID-19 pandemic. By implementing two different machine-learning methodologies (the Long Short Term Memory neural network and the Generalised Additive Model) and using different training data sets, we aim to forecast the recovery patterns for these data series for the first 12 months after the end of crisis. We thus produce a baseline forecast, based on the averages of our different models, as well as a worst- and best-case scenario. We show that recovery is asymmetric across the group of countries in the ASEAN and East Asian region and that recovery in..

Tourism Economics

Impacts of COVID-19 on Coastal Tourism in Maine: Evidence from Bar Harbor

This paper examines the effects of COVID-19 on coastal tourism in Bar Harbor, Maine, which was among the hardest hit regions statewide. The impacts of COVID-19 on Bar Harbor’s restaurant sector are separated into those related to the reduction in overnight tourists, the decrease in the recreational activities of day visitors and local residents (e.g., Acadia National Park users), the cancellation of cruise ship visits, and the nationwide decline in hospitality sales due to the COVID-19 shutdown. In July, which is during Bar Harbor’s peak tourist season, 52 percent of the area’s 2019 to 2020 year-over-year reduction in restaurant sales is due to the decrease in overnight visitors. In Oc..

Tourism Economics

Preparing the tourism workforce for the digital future

Embracing digitalisation throughout the tourism ecosystem will help to drive the ability of business to build resilience in a post-COVID-19 era. This will include exploiting the opportunities digitalisation opens up for marketing, product and destination development, as well as investing in human capital and skills to retain and develop a skilled workforce. To support the digital transformation of the sector, this report examines: i) the role of digital technology in tourism and its impact on work organisation; ii) how digitalisation affects the demand for skills in the sector; and iii) the role of government in creating the conditions to support the digital transformation of tourism busines..

Tourism Economics

The Economic Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On The Travel And Tourism Industry: Kerala Evidence

COVID-19 pandemic broke out when the travel and tourism industry was at its peak. There was a trend among the new generation spending more time and money on recreational activities as stress relievers. Travel and Tourism were prominent activities in this regard. The spread of the pandemic was so fast and gripping that the country itself got into complete lockdown and consequent shocks in every aspect of the economy. The study attempted to analyze the changes that occurred in the travel and tourism industry as a result of the pandemic. The study made use of statistical tools such as five-point Likert scale analysis, Wilcoxon Test, Chi-Square Test to analyze the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on ..

Tourism Economics

Responsible Recovery from COVID-19: An Empirical Overview of Tourism Industry

Over the past few decades, the world has seen a stunning transformation of the tourism industry. The tourism industry is one of the world's largest and fastest growing economic sectors. Thus, it is one of the key economic drivers in most developed and developing countries. Despite the rapid growth of the tourism industry, it is considered a vulnerable industry because it must accommodate the demand changes of tourists, shifts in economic environmental and other unexpected factors such as natural disasters and crises, especially the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this paper aims to review the key determinants affecting tourism demand. In general, the tourist arrivals and tourism receipt..

Tourism Economics

eWOM and growth strategies for the tourism industry in maritime museum networks. The case of the Arca Adriatica tourist product

Museum networks are proliferating in the Mediterranean area showing new forms of collaboration between public and private institutions. Museums and heritage conservation play a fundamental role in tourism development. The purpose of the present working paper is to provide an analysis of the museum network experience in order to define a set of useful and viable marketing strategies to be adopted by the museum management with respect to the relative tourist context. The case of the Arca Adriatica maritime museum network - a network of eight maritime museums representing the core asset of an elaborated tourist product - has been analyzed and considered particularly relevant and of peculiar int..

Tourism Economics

Using social network and semantic analysis to analyze online travel forums and forecast tourism demand

Forecasting tourism demand has important implications for both policy makers and companies operating in the tourism industry. In this research, we applied methods and tools of social network and semantic analysis to study user-generated content retrieved from online communities which interacted on the TripAdvisor travel forum. We analyzed the forums of 7 major European capital cities, over a period of 10 years, collecting more than 2,660,000 posts, written by about 147,000 users. We present a new methodology of analysis of tourism-related big data and a set of variables which could be integrated into traditional forecasting models. We implemented Factor Augmented Autoregressive and Bridge mo..

Tourism Economics

A study of hotels' managers and tourists’ attitudes regarding the use of furniture with hidden compartments by hotels in Bulgarian black sea and mountain resorts

Among the main threats facing the tourism sector are crimes, terrorism, and robberies. Researchers in the field state that hotel managers and even tourists themselves are refraining from submitting crime signals. In this respect, one of the main goals of the hotel’s management is to assure enough conditions to the guests to make them feel safe and secure in the hotel facilities. For that purpose, except the commonly used security devices, it is possible specially designed furniture with hidden compartments, where the guests to hide their valuables, to be placed in the hotel rooms. Such furniture are already used in the USA but there is no data or previous researches in the field regarding ..

Tourism Economics