Niger Investing in Human Capital, Agricultural Productivity, and Social Protection for Faster Poverty Reduction : A Poverty Assessment

Niger earns its foreign exchange mainly from uranium and gold, which has limited domestic economic linkages. Distant second, livestock export also provide important revenue to the country. Overall, most of the labor force is employed in a low productivity and shock prone rainfed agricultural sector. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic growth slowdown is estimated to have pushed up to an additional people into poverty. Niger is further beset by vast infrastructure gaps, intensifying terrorism attacks domestically, persisting conflict in the Sahel region, and intensifying environmental pressures..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Balancing Workers' Protection and Labor Market Flexibility in China

Across the world, governments use minimum wages, employment protection legislation, and other labor regulations that define the legal boundaries of employment to manage potential labor market imperfections. These imperfections include information asymmetry, uneven market power between employers and employees, discrimination by employers, and incomplete markets for unemployment insurance and insurance for other work-related risks. Labor regulations are also widely used to further other objectives, most notably the distribution of wealth among the population. Labor regulations can have a wide ra..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Toward More Accountable PPPs : A Review of the Development, Implementation, and Post-Implementation Experience of Improved Disclosure Practices in PPPs in Ghana, Honduras, Kenya, and Nigeria

In the face of declining fiscal space and the need to build back better after the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, governments are turning to public-private partnerships (PPPs) to deliver infrastructure assets and services. Disclosure of information plays an important role in PPP programs. Several clients of the World Bank Group, including those with well-established PPP programs, currently do not disclose PPP information in a structured way throughout the project life cycle. Responding to these challenges, the World Bank developed a series of knowledge products to understand disclosure in PPP..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Lake Chad Regional Economic Memorandum : Technical Paper 7. Trade Patterns and Trade Networks in the Lake Chad Region

The Lake Chad Region (LCR) is an economically interdependent area that encompasses parts of Cameroon (Extrême-Nord), Chad (Chari Baguirmi, Hadjer Lamis, Kenam, and Lac), Niger (Diffa and Zinder), and Nigeria (Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe). The region is characterized by strong historical, ethnic, cultural, and political ties, as well as commercial linkages that extend across its porous borders. Indeed, many if not most of the cross-border exchanges are not recorded in official import and export statistics. Informal trade is widespread throughout Africa (Bouet, Pace, and Glauber 2018; World Bank 2..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Lake Chad Regional Economic Memorandum : Technical Paper 6. Building Rural Development in the Lake Chad Region

This paper examines the relationship between access to markets and land cultivation following Berg et al. (2018) using panel methods. Then, author contextualize these results within the broader recent development challenges of the Lake Chad region. The results provide evidence that an increase in market access is associated with an increase in cultivated land and is positively associated with an increase in local agricultural GDP. Even so, conflict from the rise of Boko Haram in the past decade can attenuate gains whereby the proximity to conflict events in the previous year is associated with..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Lake Chad Regional Economic Memorandum : Technical Paper 5. Conflict and Climate Change in the Lake Chad Region

Peace and security are basic conditions for economic and social development. Conflict, on the other hand, can reverse years of economic growth and induce long-term harm on almost all aspects of development. For the past decade, the Lake Chad region has been the setting of conflicts between government forces and armed groups, most notably the Boko Haram. Although the intensity of fighting has petered off in recent years, the conflict has spread from Northern Nigeria and now affects all four countries of the region. Due to the paramount importance of avoiding armed conflict, a large economic lit..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Analysis of Pacific National Funds Investment Strategies and Results : Regional Comparative Study

At the 2019 Finance and Economic Ministers Meeting (FEMM), policy makers called for improved transparency of the Pacific trust funds’ management practices and investment results as a way to foster its improved management going forward. FEMM tasked the World Bank to undertake the study. Whereas significant progress has been made in establishing international best practices for sovereign or large public funds or both, trust funds in the Pacific are unique in making direct application of those practices challenging. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of the management practices and relevant ..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Digital Health Assessment Toolkit Guide

The advancement of technology and the exponential growth of data are providing the opportunity to Low Income Countries and Lower Middle-Income Countries to leapfrog and improve quality of care, decision making, the efficient use of resources, while reducing costs and burden of diseases. Recognizing the promise and potential of digital systems, technologies, and data to support the redesign of PHC and solve pernicious healthcare challenges in countries, digital health assessments intend to be an input and the first step towards the digital journey and to plan and prioritize what a country's hea..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

The Evolving Role of the Planning Function : International Experience and Reform Options for India

This note presents the main trends in strategic planning across public sector administrations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia, South Korea, and Colombia. It was prepared in response to the Indian Government's interest in understanding the emerging trends in the evolution of strategic planning in a range of countries and effectively adapting this function across public administration at the national and subnational levels.

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Aggregate Fiscal Impact of COVID-19

This note analyzes the short-term effects of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) shock during the first year of the crisis and presents alternative medium-term recovery scenarios. It asks a set of questions, and in answering those questions, provides policy suggestions for the Vietnamese authorities'consideration. These questions are: (i) How were tax revenues affected by the shock, and how, in turn, did they affect the fiscal space available to the authorities What tax measures did the authorities implement to mitigate the shock and how successful were they What are the implications for any ..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Uzbekistan : Second Agricultural Public Expenditure Review

Public expenditures matter a lot for agricultural growth, food and nutrition security, sustainable food systems, and other interlinked developmental outcomes. The level of agricultural public spending is important as small budgets can rarely deliver results, let alone drive any transformation of the sector. Yet, global experience clearly shows that although greater spending on agriculture is important, it does not always guarantee better outcomes unless: (i) funds are allocated to the ‘right’ programs and functions, which help address market failures and deliver public goods (i.e., allocat..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

COVID-19 in Nigeria : Frontline Data and Pathways for Policy

The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic and its economic and social effects on households have created an urgent need for timely data to help monitor and mitigate the social and economic impacts of the crisis and protect the welfare of Nigerian society. To monitor how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the economy and people of Nigeria and to inform policy interventions and responses, the National Bureau of Statistics with technical support from the World Bank implemented the Nigeria COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey (NLPS) from April 2020 to April 2021. This report draws on NLPS and oth..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Iraq Economic Monitor, Fall 2021 : The Slippery Road to Economic Recovery

The fall 2021 issue of the Iraq Economic Monitor provides an in-depth review of the latest macroeconomic and policy developments amidst a global recovery in international oil markets and as COVID-19 restrictions begin to ease. As a result, the monitor finds that the economic prospects for Iraq have improved, with GDP projected to grow from 2.6 percent in 2021 to exceed 6 percent in 2022-23, turning both fiscal and external deficits into surpluses. Nevertheless, upstream risks like oil shocks, droughts, and new COVID-19 variants; coupled with fiscal risks like growing budget rigidities, slow&#x..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

360° Resilience : A Guide to Prepare the Caribbean for a New Generation of Shocks

Caribbean countries, a set of mostly Small Island Developing States (SIDS), have a history of dealing with large shocks. The region is threatened by both economic and natural hazards. Nations have specialized in tourism and commodity exports, disproportionately exposing them to global economic cycles through changes in tourism demand and commodity prices. They are also located in a region that is highly exposed to a range of natural hazards, from volcanic eruptions to earthquakes and hurricanes, which damage their infrastructure stock, reduce tourism demand, and destroy agricultural production. Hazards have often caused severe damage to economies and livelihoods in the region. This report re..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

The Cold Road to Paris : Mapping Pathways Toward Sustainable Cooling for Resilient People and Economies by 2050

The report provides insights into the relationship between cooling and already-agreed-upon climate and development goals; presents the barriers, critical step-changes, and solutions needed to accelerate innovation and transformation; proposes aspirational targets and actions for each decade with the aim of achieving net-zero GHG emissions from cooling applications by 2050; considers financing solutions; and suggests a framework for governments and the global cooling community to take action.

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Building an Equitable Society in Colombia

Colombia’s high level of inequality is a core constraint to economic growth and social progress. The country has one of the highest levels of income inequality in the world, the second highest among 18 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and the highest among all OECD countries. The disparities in income across adults grow from gaps that open early in life in opportunities for high-quality childhood development, education, and health care services. Inequality in access to good jobs further amplifies these gaps, making Colombia among the countries where inequalities are the mo..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Western Balkans Regional Economic Report, No. 20, Fall 2021 : Greening the Recovery

Fiscal balances have started to improve as a result of a stronger economic performance, but it will take further effort to replenish buffers. The growth recovery is contributing to buoyant revenue collection across the region, particularly in value-added tax collections, as domestic consumption strengthens. Similarly, a leveling off of public spending in 2021 after the countercyclical surge of 2020 is helping on the expenditure side. As a result, all countries except Bosnia and Herzegovina expect to see a narrower fiscal deficit in 2021, with the average deficit reduced by 2.7 percent of GDP&#..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Chad 2021 Economic Update : Recovering from Shocks – Improving Macro-Fiscal Sustainability to Rebuild Better

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted Chad’s economic recovery, which started in 2018. GDP contracted by 0.9 percent in 2020. Agriculture and the oil sector remained the main drivers of growth, contributing 1.1 percentage points, while services contracted (contributing -2.0 percent). The impact of containment measures on domestic supply chains pushed up prices, and inflation rose from -1.0 percent in 2019 to 3.5 percent in 2020. Both the fiscal and current account balances deteriorated substantially, and difficulties in financing fiscal deficit may have led to further domestic&#x..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Piezas para El Desarrollo : Notas de Politica para Chile

No hay duda de que un crecimiento más sostenible, resiliente e inclusivo beneficiaría a Chile y a sus habitantes. Sin embargo, se trata de una cuestión difícil y compleja, en la cual varias piezas se entrelazan y hay muchas opiniones diferentes sobre la mejor manera de lograrla. Al mismo tiempo, la experiencia de otros países demuestra que es necesario que ciertas piezas estén en su lugar para lograr este objetivo. Chile ha incorporado varias piezas en este puzzle. Sin embargo, aún faltan algunas cruciales para alcanzar este desafío. Estas notas buscan ofrecer recomendaciones sobre cuáles puede..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Supreme Audit Institutions’ Use of Information Technology Globally for More Efficient and Effective Audits

Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) recognize the benefits of using technology to improve the quality and impact of their audits. This benefit has further intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic; SAIs with existing technology capacity have continued to perform their role effectively and efficiently. The paper explores how at a global level SAIs are using technology to perform more efficient and more effective audits. It provides a brief overview of how some SAIs are harnessing the possibilities created by advances in technology to develop new, innovative audit methods and procedures. It also se..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Infected and Stressed by Climate Variability : New Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh

Bangladesh’s extreme vulnerability to the effects of climate change is well documented. Through a complex pathway, climatic conditions have already negatively impacted human health worldwide. This is likely to escalate if predicted changes in weather patterns hold. Infectious disease transmission will change in pattern and incidence for certain vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue, and waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and cholera. The incidence of respiratory disease will be affected by extreme temperatures that exacerbate the effects of allergens and of air pollution (World ..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

National Development Financial Institutions : Trends, Crisis Response Activities, and Lessons Learned

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in providing countercyclical lending and sustainable development financing through national development financial institutions (NDFIs). While NDFIs are often a feasible solution for addressing development needs and closing financing gaps, they are not always the best solution, and their setup and structure need to be tailored to the country’s needs. It is important that prior to setting up a new NDFI or increasing the scope of operations of the existing ones, governments consider all available public policy interventions as well as options for..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

South Africa Social Assistance Programs and Systems Review : Policy Brief

South Africa’s social assistance system represents a major intervention by government in addressing the deprivation amongst the country’s population. The system is extensive in terms of both the number of people it covers, directly and indirectly, as well as in terms of the amount of scarce resources it consumes. This brife summarizes findings and recommendations from a study that assesses the performance of South Africa’s social assistance programs and systems, based on recent national household survey data and program administrative information, in three broad thrusts. Firstly, the stu..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

South Africa : Social Assistance Programs and Systems Review

Despite being an upper middle income country, South Africa’s high inequality and the long-lasting legacies of apartheid mean that the country is faced with numerous development challenges, many of which are characteristic of countries with much lower incomes. This paper focuses on social assistance and, specifically, the system of social grants in South Africa. This report aims to review the social assistance system in South Africa to first understand how it functions and what kinds of benefits it provides through which programs, and what tools and systems it uses to do so. Second, it review..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Unleashing Central America’s Growth Potential : Guatemala

The objective of this study is to investigate the drivers and constraints of growth and productivity in Guatemala and explore areas with high growth potential. Drawing on the historical growth experience of Guatemala and employing a range of analytical tools, this country analysis aims to provide an in-depth study of the drivers and constraints of the country’s economic growth. The report first takes stock of the historical growth and macro performance of the country, before moving to a growth accounting exercise to understand the past drivers of the country’s growth. In the same vein, the..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Debt Transparency in Developing Economies

Analyzing public debt in low-income developing countries (LIDCs) is like solving a puzzle with many missing pieces. Forty percent of LIDCs have not published any sovereign debt data in the last two years. Public debt data disclosed in different publications show discrepancies of up to 30 percent of GDP across sources, and relative to the records of relevant authorities. Over 15 LIDCs have outstanding collateralized debt but no details of the collateralization are provided in official statistics. Restructuring of bilateral and commercial debt is often handled privately. All these problems have ..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

The Rural Nonfarm Sector and Livelihood Strategies in Sri Lanka : Background Report to Sri Lanka Poverty Assessment

Sri Lanka’s economy underwent steady structural transformation over the last two decades. During this time, economic activities increasingly shifted toward industry and services. Poverty fell significantly during this period, mainly led by nonfarm income growth. The nature of rural nonfarm activities is quite heterogeneous and nonfarm activities can entail low-return activities. Understanding the nature of the rural nonfarm economy is a first step towards assessing its potential to facilitate economic transformation and where policy interventions could be useful. The main findings are two-fo..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Agricultural Productivity, Diversification and Gender : Background Report to Sri Lanka Poverty Assessment

Identifying opportunities to increase agricultural productivity and incomes is an important priority for rural development. Progress toward poverty reduction continued in recent years, but the contribution of the agriculture sector was weak, mainly because productivity improvements were relatively limited. Using detailed individual-level data on agricultural activities, this paper analyzes agricultural production patterns and associated productivity of farm households. Particular attention is paid to (i) diversification toward higher-value, export-oriented crops as a means to increase producti..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Market Study for Vietnam : Plastics Circularity Opportunities and Barriers

Vietnam's public and private sector stakeholders are increasingly active in addressing plastics waste. The Vietnam Government has set ambitious national plastics waste management goals to combat the economic and environmental consequences of mismanaged plastics waste nationally. This study uses a plastics value chain approach to evaluate Vietnam’s plastics recycling industry and its role in supporting a circular economy.

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies

Steering Tertiary Education : Toward Resilient Systems that Deliver for All

As the world seeks to build back better into a new era of green and equitable economic growth, tertiary education systems are at the heart of the big transformations required throughout economies and societies. Tertiary education is vital for the development of human capital and innovation. Strategic and effective investments in tertiary education can serve every country - from the poorest to the richest - by developing its talent and leadership pool, generating, and applying knowledge to local and global challenges, and participating in the global knowledge economy. Effective tertiary educati..

OKR > Economic and Sector Work (ESW) Studies