The Intellectual Assets in Europe

In this article we investigate the determinants of the Intellectual Assets in Europe. We use data from the European Innovation Scoreboard of the European Commission in the period 2000-2019 for 36 countries. Data are analyzed using Panel with Fixed Effects, Random Effects, WLS, Pooled OLS, Dynamic Panel at 1 Stage. Results show that the presence of Intellectual Assets in Europe is positively associated with “Enterprise Births”, “Top R&D Spending Enterprises per 10 mln Population”, “Employment Share Manufacturing”, “Share High and Medium high-tech Manufacturing”, “Attractive Research Systems”, “Finance and Support”, “Innovators”, “Sales Impact” and is negatively..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Information Leakage, Imitation, and the Patent System

From a firm’s perspective two competing forces are driving the decision to invest in innovation. On the one hand, innovative performance is an important driver of profitability and growth. On the other hand, investments in innovation suffer from negative externalities, i.e. spillovers to other firms, and hence imitation could be induced. To preempt imitation firms may protect their inventions by means of intellectual property rights, such as patents. By taking out a patent, however, a firm also conveys information about the functioning of the invention to competitors. In this empirical paper, we highlight the trade-off of patenting by setting up a recursive system of equations on knowledge..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Skill-biased acquisitions? Human capital and target employee mobility in small technology firms

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between acquisitions and mobility of knowledge workers and managers in small technology companies and how individual skills and capabilities moderate the relationship. Relying on the matched employer-employee data of the Swedish high-tech sectors from 2007 to 2015, we find that acquisitions increase the likelihood of employee departures, mainly in the form of switching to another employer, but that these acquisition effects are weaker for employees with technological competences. Moreover, we also find that managers, compared to other employees, are more likely to exit from the (national) labor market after acquisitions. Our result..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Do Targeted R&D Grants Towards Potential Highgrowth Firms Increase Employment and Demand for High Human Capital Workers?

Most previous studies on the employment effects of government R&D grants targeting SMEs are characterized by data-, measurement-, and selection problems, making it difficult to construct a relevant control group of firms that did not receive a R&D grant. We investigate the effects on employment and firm-level demand for high human capital workers of two Swedish programs targeted towards growth-oriented SMEs using Coarsened Exact Matching. Our most striking result is the absence of any statistically significant effects. We find no robust evidence that the targeted R&D grant programs had any positive and statistically significant effects on the number of employees recruited into these SMEs, or..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Economic Growth and Bank Innovation

Based on archival and survey data we show that the maturity of U.S. business loans has been continuously increasing since the mid-1930s when banks invented the term loan. Concurrently, bank innovation first involved the invention of credit analysis and covenant design. Later, bank innovation included the advent of loan sales, increased loan syndications, the opening of the leveraged loan market, and the securitization of loans in collateralized loan obligations. We estimate and calibrate a model of bank innovation to determine the quantitative contribution of bank innovation to economic growth.

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Geographies of Knowledge Sourcing and the Value of Knowledge in Multilocational Firms

A growing body of research in economic geography, international business management and related fields focuses on geographies of knowledge sourcing. This work examines the organizational structure of innovation activities within the firm, the mechanisms by which knowledge is extracted from various external sources and the geography of these different activities. We augment this literature by exploring knowledge sourcing within multilocational firms operating in the US using a unique dataset matching patent records to firm-level ownership and geographical data. The results add value to existing research in three ways. First, the establishments of multilocational corporations are shown to prod..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Globalized Adoption of Knowledge Management in New Product Development: A Conceptual Framework

"Objective - The article presents the concept between the relationship of knowledge management adoption in global new product development. The growth in new knowledge and technology has substantially increased the complexity of the projects that is strongly influencing the time, cost, and quality of the project management. Due to the volatility of the current market, the effectiveness of knowledge management could reduce the project uncertainties, project life cycle costs, and risks of new product development. Since new product development is regarded as the key to innovation due to its strong connection between the knowledge and core competence, the ways how the knowledge will be captured, ..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Employee Mapping Process as a Solution for Empowering Human Resources in Companies

"Objective - The development of the Indonesian residential business sector in recent years has experienced rapid changes and developments. For example, landed-house housing has now decreased in favour of high-rise developments. This has had an impact on the needs for various competencies of employees of construction company X, therefore, the company needs to empower employees, beginning with mapping employees of construction X. Mapping of employees has not been widely carried out by the company. Various elements are needed to describe employee strengths and the results can be used to develop a competency development program to achieve long-term targets. The purpose of this research is to des..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Who develops AI-related innovations, goods and services?: A firm-level analysis

This study proposes an exploratory analysis of the characteristics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) “actors”. It focuses on entities that deploy AI-related technologies or introduce AI-related goods and services on large international markets. It builds on the OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Micro-data Lab infrastructure, and, in particular, on Intellectual Property (IP) rights data (patents and trademarks) combined with company-level data. Statistics on AI-related patents and trademarks show that AI-related activities are strongly concentrated in some countries, sectors, and actors. Development of AI technologies and/or goods and services is mainly due to start-ups or large incum..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Academic Freedom, Institutions and Productivity

The issue of what explains differences in the wealth of nations is one of the most classic in economics. We propose de facto academic freedom as an explanatory variable. The main idea is that such freedom allows for the development of new useful knowledge through research unconstrained by powerholders in business and politics. Using a new global panel-data set, encompassing up to 127 countries over the period 1960–2015, we show that there is indeed a positive relationship between de facto academic freedom and both labor and total-factor productivity growth. However, this effect only appears as long as the quality of the legal system is sufficiently high. We suggest that this is because suc..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Informality, innovation, and knowledge co-creation: characterising collaborative creativity and adaptation in rural development

This article characterises informal knowledge creation and co-creation between development and pastoralist actors, drawing on qualitative data gathered during an in-depth case study in Northern Kenya. Using thematic analysis, this article identifies three intersecting narratives: knowledge and exchange, barriers and drivers, and risk and uncertainty. These concepts are interpreted using wider literature on knowledge dynamics and co-creation to evaluate the suitability of existing analytical frameworks for further research on pastoralist development. The study results highlight the value of cross-cultural informal knowledge co-creation for pastoralist development, and the need for more robust..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Multinational enterprises and intangible capital

This paper provides new evidence on the role of intangible capital in global value chains (GVCs) by focusing on the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) and their foreign affiliates in value capture through intangible assets. Industry-level data suggest that foreign affiliates of MNEs generate more income through intangible capital than domestic-owned firms. Intangible returns from foreign affiliates are found both in the host economy and in foreign-owned firms in other countries participating in the GVC. Some heterogeneity is observed across GVCs with returns to intangible capital of foreign-owned firms concentrated in key manufacturing (chemicals including pharmaceuticals, food product..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Know-how and Know-who: Effects of a Randomized Training on Network Changes Among Small Urban Entrepreneurs

Micro-enterprise owners in developing country industrial clusters interact through networks of horizontal business collaboration, information-sharing, and friendship links, despite the potential for close competition inherent in this setting. This paper explores how such business links change, and specifically whether they can be endogenous to a public policy intervention that provides training to some network members but not others. Using a randomized training for micro-entrepreneurs in Kampala, Uganda, together with novel panel network data, I find a positive effect on linking likelihoods, driven by untreated entrepreneurs to whom links with treated entrepreneurs become more desirable. As ..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Intellectual Capital, and Knowledge Processes for Organizational Innovativeness across Industries: The Case of Poland – the full version of a study published in JIC

Purpose: This study aims to present the overview of intellectual capital creation micro-mechanisms concerning formal and informal knowledge processes. The organizational culture, transformational leadership, and innovativeness are also included in the investigation as ascendants and consequences of the focal relation of intellectual capital and knowledge processes. Method: The empirical model was developed using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method based on a sample of 1,418 Polish knowledge workers employed in the construction, healthcare, higher education (HE), and information technology (IT) industries. Findings: The study exposes that the essence of transformational leadership i..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

The impact of the six European Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) on regional knowledge creation

The European Commission summarized six young General Purpose Technologies (GPTs) under the label of European Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) in 2009. GPTs are broad, pervasive and widely diffused technologies that enable knowledge creation and economic growth. This study analyzes to what extent the KETs’ structural relevance within their regional knowledge bases leads to regional knowledge creation. Additionally, we analyze whether the structural relevance and the regional knowledge presence in KETs interact with regards to regional knowledge creation. The ‘structure’ of a regional knowledge base describes the relation of all knowledge being present within a given region..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Organization of Knowledge and Taxation

This paper studies how labor income taxation interacts with the organization of knowledge and production, and ultimately the distribution of wages in the economy. A more progressive tax system reduces the time that managers allocate to work. This makes the organization of production less efficient and reduces wages at both tails of the distribution, which increases lower tail wage inequality and decreases upper tail wage inequality. The optimal tax system is substantially less progressive than the current one in the United States. However, if wages were exogenous, the optimal tax progressivity would be much higher.

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Chameleonic knowledge: a study of ex ante analysis in large infrastructure policy processes

Using ex ante analysis to predict policy outcomes is common practice in the world of infra- structure planning. However, accounts of its uses and merits vary widely. Advisory agencies and government think tanks advocate this practice to prevent cost overruns, short-term decision-making and suboptimal choices. Academic studies on knowledge use, on the other hand, are critical of how knowledge can be used in decision making. Research has found that analyses often have no impact at all on decision outcomes or are mainly conducted to provide decision makers with the confidence to decide rather than with objective facts. In this paper, we use an ethnographic research design to understand how it i..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

A Methodological Framework to Support the Sustainable Innovation Development Process : A Collaborative Approach

The notion of sustainable innovation (SI) emerged recently in the academic literature and evokes deep changes in organizations' products, processes, and practices to favour the creation of social and environmental value in addition to economic returns. The development of SI implies a collaborative process that requires the orchestration of several actors and streams of knowledge to be successful. Indeed, companies adopting the SI path need structured methodologies to guide the collaboration process with internal and external actors and support the decision process. Nevertheless, the literature has focused on the analysis of determinants and drivers of sustainable innovation development, whil..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

A Methodological Framework to Support the Sustainable Innovation Development Process : A Collaborative Approach

The notion of sustainable innovation (SI) emerged recently in the academic literature and evokes deep changes in organizations' products, processes, and practices to favour the creation of social and environmental value in addition to economic returns. The development of SI implies a collaborative process that requires the orchestration of several actors and streams of knowledge to be successful. Indeed, companies adopting the SI path need structured methodologies to guide the collaboration process with internal and external actors and support the decision process. Nevertheless, the literature has focused on the analysis of determinants and drivers of sustainable innovation development, whil..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

The Impact of Intellectual Property Protection through FTA on International Trade

The importance of intellectual property rights (IPRs) for innovation has grown and the protection of intellectual property in international trade has also been strengthened. AI-related patent applications have been increasing rapidly and many AI patents are being filed in various industries. Intellectual property also represents one of the main controversies of U.S.-China trade relations in the past three decades and remains one of the core issues behind the two countries' recent trade conflicts. As a result, global protection for IPRs has been expanded in recent decades. This article investigates changes in the trend regarding the IP protection level in FTA and how the IP protection through..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Intelligent Decision Support in Automating ABET Accreditation Processes: A Conceptual Framework

In the era of knowledge-based decision-making, there is an increasing need for administrators and instructors of engineering degree programs to make informed decisions on the currency, relevancy, and efficacy of instructional efforts. Academic accreditation through ABET provides the best practices and the means to establish the requisite quality improvement processes. Various regulatory and funding agencies for these engineering degree programs also actively call for accreditations. Nevertheless, the tedious, time-consuming, resource-intensive, and knowledge-based nature of these processes and decisions pronounces the need for a knowledge-based tool to intelligently support and automate vari..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Policy Influence in the Knowledge Space: a Regional Application

Cluster policies aim at improving collaboration between co-located actors to address systemic failures. As yet, cluster policy evaluations are mainly concerned with effects on firm performance. Some recent studies move to the system level by assessing how the structure of actor-based knowledge networks is affected by such policies. We continue in that direction and analyze how technology-based regional knowledge spaces structurally respond to the introduction of a cluster policy. Taking the example of the German BioRegio contest, we examine how such knowledge spaces in winning and non-winning regions evolved before, during and after the policy. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we ..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Household Debt, Student Loan Forgiveness, and Human Capital Investment: a neo-Kaleckian Approach

This paper aims to analyze the sustainability of student debt in the US. For this purpose, I build a neo-Kaleckian model in which households can borrow to either consume or invest in human capital. Next, I calibrate the model using US data to simulate the economic effects of specific policies such as student loan forgiveness. To my knowledge, this is the first study that considers household borrowing for two di erent purposes, consumption and human capital accumulation, in a demand-led macro-modeling framework. The main findings are that i) household debt is sustainable in the long run (i.e., the debt servicing is compatible with the long-term economic growth) for a consumption level greater..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

How Do Workers Adjust When Firms Adopt New Technologies?

We investigate how workers adjust to firms' investments into new digital technologies, including artificial intelligence, augmented reality, or 3D printing. For this, we collected novel data that links survey information on firms' technology adoption to administrative social security data. We then compare individual outcomes between workers employed at technology adopters relative to non-adopters. Depending on the type of technology, we find evidence for improved employment stability, higher wage growth, and increased cumulative earnings in response to digital technology adoption. These beneficial adjustments seem to be driven by technologies used by service providers rather than manufacture..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta) and Potential Demand for Integrated Pest Management Among Smallholder Farmers in Kenya and Uganda.

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Moderating effect of culture on the relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance in the university context.

The huge amount of information in our daily life and the continuous work to organize and use it in the best possible way has led to the emergence of knowledge management. This work has two main objectives, first we test the existence of a correlation relationship between the application of knowledge management and organizational performance of Abdelmalek Essaadi University, and secondly, we verify the moderating role of organizational culture on the intensity of this relationship, by collecting the views of the Abdelmalek Essaadi University teacher-researchers, through a hypothetico-deductive reasoning approach and a quantitative working method. Our questionnaire was administered to a repres..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy

Are Moroccan Universities Ready for Knowledge Management

throughout the literature, several factors affect positively KM initiatives in universities are discussed. Some of these are the same as those found for private organizations and others are specific to public organizations. Most authors cite the organizational culture and structure. The main objective of this study was to verify the presence of success factors in KM implementation at the Moroccan universities via Abdelmalek Essaadi University subject of this work. through a deductive reasoning approach and a quantitative working method, Using the questionnaire as a tool to collect data from a proportional random and representative sample of 88 teacher-researchers from the different instituti..

Knowledge Management and Knowledge Economy