The Cold Road to Paris : Mapping Pathways Toward Sustainable Cooling for Resilient People and Economies by 2050

The report provides insights into the relationship between cooling and already-agreed-upon climate and development goals; presents the barriers, critical step-changes, and solutions needed to accelerate innovation and transformation; proposes aspirational targets and actions for each decade with the aim of achieving net-zero GHG emissions from cooling applications by 2050; considers financing solutions; and suggests a framework for governments and the global cooling community to take action.

OKR > Technical Papers

From the Ground Up : A Decade of Lessons on Carbon Pricing

The World Bank’s partnership for market readiness (PMR), through grant support and technical assistance, supported 23 emerging economies and developing countries in building their institutional and human capacities to design, institute, and implement carbon pricing instruments, such as emission trading systems, carbon taxes, and or carbon crediting mechanisms along with underlying infrastructure such as monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) and registry systems. As the PMR winds down and its successor - the partnership for market implementation (PMI) - becomes operational in 2021, the..

OKR > Technical Papers

Enhancing Carbon Pricing and International Carbon Market Readiness Through the Mitigation Action Assessment Protocol : Summary Report

Putting a price on carbon can be an indispensable part of a country’s strategy to reduce emissions in an efficient way. Furthermore, putting a price on carbon through international carbon markets can also offer significant cost benefits and enable flexibility in achieving emission reduction targets. Article 6 of the Paris Agreement provides a potential basis for bottom-up carbon market linkage. Under the Paris Agreement, carbon pricing policies and international carbon markets are increasingly developed bottom up and are diverse in nature to accommodate countries’ domestic priorities. Whil..

OKR > Technical Papers

Kosovo Early Childhood Development : SABER Country Report 2021

Early childhood development (ECD) has become a high priority for the government of Kosovo in the last decade. Kosovo has a relatively well-established legal framework supporting early childhood development (ECD). Systems Approach for Better Education Results - Early Childhood Development (SABER-ECD) collects, analyzes, and disseminates comprehensive information on ECD policies around the world. In each participating country, extensive multisectoral information is collected on ECD policies and programs through a desk review of available government documents, data and literature, and interviews ..

OKR > Technical Papers

Climate Responsive Economic Recovery : Post-Pandemic Opportunities in Mashreq

In Mashreq, climate change and fragility form a vicious cycle wherein current fragility hinders climate action and climate threats will exacerbate fragility. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has brought an acute disruption to the global economy, yet its most profound effects have been felt in weak and fragile states, including Mashreq countries. Reimagining a post-Covid-19 climate-responsive economic recovery presents a critical opportunity to break away from this cycle and align economic, development, and climate agendas. This report highlights some of the opportunities available for Mashr..

OKR > Technical Papers

Enterprise Surveys Follow-up on COVID-19 : What Businesses Experience, Moldova 2021, Round 3

The outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) affected individuals and businesses, alike. Understanding the impact of the crisis on businesses, and subsequently how firms are recovering, gives insights into the overall health of the economy as the world tackles the health crisis it is facing. The follow-up surveys to the standard Enterprise Surveys (ES) aim to assess how businesses are adapting and recovering as the first signs of improvement appear in the global health situation. This document summarizes the main findings from the third round of follow-up surveys in Moldova.

OKR > Technical Papers

Do Speed Limit Reductions Help Road Safety? : Lessons from the Republic of Korea's Recent Move to Lower Speed Limit on Urban Roads

Significant research has been undertaken on how changes in speed limit—for example, the introduction of 30 kilometers per hour, or kph (20 miles per hour, or mph) speed limits—impact safety both when combined with, and without "traffic-calming

OKR > Technical Papers

Beyond Mitigation : Quantifying the Development Benefits of Carbon Pricing

Carbon pricing can reduce emissions cost-effectively, and it can also generate a number of other benefits. This guide provides an overview of these benefits to help policy makers advance a variety of sustainable development objectives in their own countries and around the world. Carbon prices are broadly recognized as necessary for correcting market failures that arise from pollution externalities, because the prices paid for using fossil fuels do not come close to compensating society for the costs that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impose on society. Where there is a divergence between (ext..

OKR > Technical Papers

Carbon Pricing Assessment and Decision-Making : A Guide to Adopting a Carbon Price

Many countries and subnational jurisdictions are considering putting a price on carbon to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and achieve their climate commitments. There are currently 64 carbon pricing instruments (CPIs) in place or in the process of implementation, with 10 launched in 2019 alone. Before a jurisdiction implements a CPI, it will often examine the role a CPI will play and the rationale for adopting it. The objective of this guide is to help policymakers build the case for carbon pricing and choose an appropriate CPI. Chapter one sets out the rationale for putting an expl..

OKR > Technical Papers

Emissions Trading in Practice, Second Edition : A Handbook on Design and Implementation

Currently, about 46 national jurisdictions and 35 cities, states, and regions, representing almost a quarter of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, are putting a price on carbon as a central component of their efforts to reduce emissions and place their growth trajectory on a more sustainable footing. An increasing number of these jurisdictions are approaching carbon pricing through the design and implementation of Emissions Trading Systems (ETS). As of 2021, ETSs were operating across four continents in 38 countries, 18 states or provinces, and six cities covering over 40 percent of &#..

OKR > Technical Papers

Country Perspectives : Opportunities and Challenges for International Voluntary Carbon Markets in the Context of the Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement, with its universal requirement on all countries to submit nationally determined contributions (NDCs), marks a significant change for the framework of international cooperation through carbon markets. With all countries committing themselves to climate action to reduce emissions and achieve their NDCs, the ability to exert exclusive claims over the emission impact from carbon market investments and count them towards emission targets is becoming increasingly complicated. This study seeks to understand perspectives of potential host countries on the role international volunt..

OKR > Technical Papers

A Guide to Developing Domestic Carbon Crediting Mechanisms

This guide to developing domestic carbon crediting mechanisms is intended to assist national and subnational policymakers considering whether and how to establish a carbon crediting mechanism in their jurisdiction. The guide provides insights into the decision points for designing a crediting mechanism and how to tailor the mechanism to achieve domestic policy objectives. This guide is divided into 10 chapters representing the key elements that must be considered when setting up a domestic crediting mechanism. These chapters should be seen as the building blocks for developing a crediting mech..

OKR > Technical Papers

Mexico : Paving the Way for the Development of Emissions Trading

Mexico has made great strides recently in its fight against climate change. The enactment of the Climate Change Law in 2012 and its reform in 2018 led to the creation of a series of administrative and policy instruments to guide domestic action on climate mitigation and adaptation. The development and implementation of this agenda created new and different challenges involving the design and adoption of new fiscal, economic, and market-based instruments. Mexico opted for the development of an Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) as its main instrument to scale up climate change mitigation efforts. To..

OKR > Technical Papers

Partnership for Market Readiness - Costa Rica Program : Program Alignment and Achievements

Costa Rica ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1994 and has since developed and implemented national climate policies in accordance with its principles, primarily through the Ministry of Environment and Energy (MINAE) and its institutional structures. Early actions, together with the establishment of climate-specific policies, earned Costa Rica a place in the Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR), a multi-donor trust fund within the World Bank that supports participating countries to prepare and implement climate change mitigation policies including ..

OKR > Technical Papers

Do Crises Hit Female-Managed and Male-Managed Firms Differently? Evidence from the 2008 Financial Crisis

While efforts are currently in place to collect data on the economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, this note looks at the experience of the 2008 financial crisis to gain insights on possible differential effects of crises on female and male entrepreneurs. Specially, the note uses firm-level data collected immediately after the 2008 financial crisis in six countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Turkey) to look at two aspects of the differential effect of the crisis. First, whether there is a difference in the exit rate for firms..

OKR > Technical Papers

Developing Emissions Quantification Protocols for Carbon Pricing : A Guide to Options and Choices for Policy Makers

Carbon pricing is an important instrument in addressing climate change. However, a well-functioning carbon pricing instrument needs a robust framework to quantify GHG emissions (including removals) underpinned by high quality data. This data can help policy makers set the level of a carbon tax (CT) and help regulators track how many emissions allowances companies need to surrender under an Emissions Trading System (ETS). A robust framework will facilitate implementation and enforcement of the rules and increase compliance levels. This report builds on the PMR Guide for Designing Mandatory ..

OKR > Technical Papers

Distributional Impacts of Carbon Pricing on Households

Carbon pricing policies that are aligned with the Paris Agreement objectives will have positive and negative socio-economic impacts on society. Impacts of unabated climate change are expected to disrupt economic development and disproportionally affect the poorest parts of the population, especially in lower-income countries. In response, through the Paris Agreement, the international community pledged to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Carbon pricing has been highlighted as a crucial prerequisite for effective climate change mitigation. Carbon..

OKR > Technical Papers

Analytical Report on Urban Crediting Methodology

With an increasing share of populations dwelling in cities, urban emission reduction is gaining priority at the national level. A high share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the global footprint is ultimately attributable to urban areas; as such, the effect of carbon lockin further increases the need for immediate action at the urban level. City and regional policy makers are well placed to affect urban emission pathways through city-wide actions. The credits generated from an urban carbon crediting approach may be used for a range of purposes. The two key options are: (1) for use toward t..

OKR > Technical Papers

Simulating Carbon Markets

Carbon market simulations are programs, models, virtual environments, and/or games that allow stakeholders to participate in a simulated process of designing or participating in an ETS. They are a low-cost and low-risk option of building capacity for both policymakers and regulated companies. The experiential learning processes these tools enable serves to increase ETS literacy, helps build support for ETS as a policy option, and illustrates how policy outcomes are a function of design. Importantly, ETS simulations can provide an opportunity for different stakeholdersto build relatio..

OKR > Technical Papers

Reconciling Carbon Pricing and Energy Policies in Developing Countries : Integrating Policies for a Clean Energy Transition

The focus of the Report Reconciling Carbon pricing and Energy Policies in Developing Countries is how the objective of reducing emissions can be pursued alongside the priorities reflected in the energy policies of developing countries. The Report for Practitioners summarizes the Report’s main findings 4 and is split into three parts: part one examines interactions between climate and energy policies and related challenges and opportunities; some interactions are positive, some are negative. Part two focuses on the potential conflicts between carbon pricing on existing energy policy ..

OKR > Technical Papers

Enterprise Surveys : Armenia Country Profile 2020

The Enterprise Surveys (ES) focus on many aspects of the business environment. These factors can be accommodating or constraining for firms and play an important role in whether an economy’s private sector will thrive or not. An accommodating business environment is one that encourages firms to operate efficiently. Such conditions strengthen incentives for firms to innovate and to increase productivity, key factors for sustainable development. A more productive private sector, in turn, expands employment and contributes taxes necessary for public investment in health, education, and other se..

OKR > Technical Papers

Impacts of Conservation Incentives in Protected Areas : The Case of Bolsa Floresta, Brazil

Incentive-based conservation is a promising approach to tropical forest conservation, including within multiple-use protected areas. Here we analyze the environmental impacts of Bolsa Floresta, a longstanding forest conservation program combining conditional household payments with livelihood-focused investments in 15 multiple-use reserves of Amazonas State, Brazil. We use grid-based data, nearest-neighbor matching, and panel data econometrics to compare forest-related program outcomes (deforestation, degradation, fires) with non-participating reserves. While post-treatment deforesta..

OKR > Technical Papers

Armenia Tertiary Education : SABER Country Report

This report aims to help the government of Armenia and its stakeholders develop a strategy for the tertiary education sector. It uses the methodology of SABER – Tertiary Education (SABER-TE), which is a diagnostic tool to assess how education systems perform and to identify priorities for reforms at the national level. The methodology and this report are part of the World Bank’s systems approach for better education results (SABER), which benchmarks education systems at the country level. SABER uses an extensive questionnaire to collect data on the policy environment for tertiary education..

OKR > Technical Papers

Making Great Strides Yet a Learning Crisis Remains in Tanzania : Results of the SDI and SABER service Delivery Surveys

This report is organized as follows. Chapter one analyzes the emerging trends in the evolution of student’s learning outcomes in Tanzania’s primary schools and explores variations by region, ethnic-group and gender. Chapter two describes different dimensions and trends of teacher quality, such as teacher absence, content knowledge, pedagogical skills and teaching practices. Chapter three provides descriptive evidence on school governance and school management quality using the Development-World Management Survey. Chapter four presents detailed information on school inputs and infrastructur..

OKR > Technical Papers

Report of the High-Level Commission on Carbon Pricing and Competitiveness

The potentially adverse impact of carbon pricing on the competitiveness of businesses and economies has been a matter of concern to industry and policymakers. It has also been a barrier to progress on carbon pricing. The Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition launched the High-Level Commission on Carbon Pricing and Competitiveness at its 2018 High-Level Assembly to address the issue. This report showcases dialogue among business leaders to explore the evidence base, the concerns of business, and the lessons learned in the design and implementation of carbon pricing policies in the context of comp..

OKR > Technical Papers

The Economic Potential of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement and Implementation Challenges

This technical paper investigates the potential economic and environmental outcomesassociated with the use of Article 6 of the Paris Agreement by participating countries.The extent to which countries use Article 6, and how they use it, will be informed by design choices agreed upon by negotiators in forthcoming Conference of the Parties (COP) meetings, particularly the next one to be held at COP 25 in Chile and by the agreements made between participating parties. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model, to quantify the economic potential of Article 6. ..

OKR > Technical Papers

Using Carbon Revenues

Carbon pricing is increasingly recognized as an important source of government revenue. Carbon revenues can be crucial in supporting cost-effective climate mitigation, industrial competitiveness and other economic and development objectives. How carbon revenues are used and how these uses are communicated are also critical for public and stakeholder acceptability of carbon pricing. This report provides practical guidance on using carbon revenues by helping policymakers understand the implications, opportunities, and challenges associated with different approaches to carbon revenue use.

OKR > Technical Papers

Is there a Learning Crisis in Punjab? : Initial Data Release from the SABER SD Survey

In 2018, the World Bank released World Development Report which showed that the world is facing a ‘Learning Crisis’. Following up from that report, the Bank has launched the Human Capital Project to mobilize more resources, including for the improvement of learning outcomes. Subsequently, global leaders have been increasingly focused on solving this learning crisis and have renewed attention for Sustainable Development Goal 4: Quality Education. Pakistan is an early adopter of this Human Capital Project, and the new government is taking the lead to address the root causes of the learning c..

OKR > Technical Papers

The First International Research Conference on Carbon Pricing

This report provides the papers and proceedings of the first International Research Conference on Carbon Pricing held from February 14-15, 2019 in New Delhi, India. With the goal of strengthening the carbon pricing knowledge base and fostering an improved understanding of the evolving challenges to its successful application, the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition convened researchers, practitioners, and interested stakeholders for the CPLC Research Conference.

OKR > Technical Papers

Designing Accreditation and Verification Systems : A Guide to Ensuring Credibility for Carbon Pricing Instruments

Carbon pricing instruments (CPIs) involve large legal and financial interests. Trust in the accuracy and integrity of the reported data is therefore a prerequisite for a well-functioning instrument. To ensure accuracy and integrity of data, a robust monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system is essential. Verification is critical to enhance trust in a carbon pricing system. Where systems have large financial implications, participation is voluntary, or international exchange of units is planned, this trust is paramount for successful implementation. This guidebook aims to help &#..

OKR > Technical Papers