Effects of residential push-pull on tenants' intention to relocate from larger megacities: Evidence from a Beijing, China survey

Tenants' residential relocation always presents diverse space-temporal tendencies and is highly influenced by institutional, socio-economic, and subjective factors in China. This paper aims to construct a relocation intention (RI) model and estimate the effects of its push-pull factors, including the household's registration system (hukou), homeownership status, and residential dissatisfaction. The empirical research relies on a questionnaire survey of 2,187 tenants conducted in 2019 in Beijing, China. Our findings confirm that non-local hukou status significantly pushes female and unmarried tenants to relocate, and non-local homeownership noticeably pulls male and married tenants' relocatio..

Economics of Human Migration

Managing Refugee Protection Crises: Policy Lessons from Economics and Political Science

We review and interpret research on the economic and political effects of receiving asylum seekers and refugees in developed countries, with a particular focus on the 2015 European refugee protection crisis and its aftermath. In the first part of the paper, we examine the consequences of receiving asylum seekers and refugees and identify two main findings. First, the reception of refugees is unlikely to generate large direct economic effects. Both labor market and fiscal consequences for host countries are likely to be relatively modest. Second, however, the broader political processes accompanying the reception and integration of refugees may give rise to indirect yet larger economic effect..

Economics of Human Migration

Asylum Recognition Rates in Europe: Persecution, Policies and Performance

A minority of applicants for asylum in Europe gain some form of recognition as refugees, and this has been a controversial issue. From the early 2000s the EU introduced a series of directives to prevent a race to the bottom in asylum policies and to harmonise policy between destination countries but the results have not been fully assessed. In this paper I examine the determinants of recognition rates for asylum applicants from 65 origin countries to 20 European destinations from 2003 to 2017. The outcomes of the EU directives have been mixed, but taken together they are associated with increased recognition rates. These made a modest contribution to the trend increase in recognition rates m..

Economics of Human Migration

Motives for economic migration: a review

The present paper sheds light on the motives of economic migrants---an aspect that has not been discussed at a general level so far. Previous work has only focused on specific fields of interest and used different terminologies, hence impeding comparison and the synthesis of findings across studies. Derived from theoretical, empirical, and analytical research outcomes, the paper concludes that economic migrants’ movements are influenced by the socio-demographic factors of ‘age’ and ‘education’ and are motivated by both the economic motives of ‘expected income’ and ‘employment’ and the economic-related motives of ‘corruptionâ..

Economics of Human Migration

The redistributive effects of enfranchising non-citizens. Evidence from Sweden

We study theoretically and empirically the redistributive effects of extending voting rights to non-citizens. Our model predicts a tax increase when newly enfranchised voters represent a sufficiently large fraction of voters. We study the 1975 Swedish electoral reform that extended voting rights to non-citizens in municipal elections. In the first term after the reform, there was a tax increase that was not repeated in subsequent terms. This increase was stronger the greater the foreign population in the municipality. This effect was concentrated in municipalities where the size of the non-citizen population was large enough to upturn the previous electoral outcome.

Economics of Human Migration

Migration as a Vector of Economic Losses from Disaster-Affected Areas in the United States

In this paper, we infuse consideration of migration into research on economic losses from extreme weather disasters. Taking a comparative case study approach and using data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, we document the size of economic losses via migration from 23 disaster-affected areas in the United States after the most damaging hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires on record. We then employ demographic standardization and decomposition to determine if these losses primarily reflect changes in out-migration or changes in the economic resources that migrants take with them (greater economic losses per migrant). Finally, we consider the implications..

Economics of Human Migration

Displacement and Mortality After a Disaster: Deaths of Puerto Ricans in the United States Post-Hurricane Maria

Extreme weather events such as hurricanes are growing in frequency and magnitude and are expected to affect a growing population due to migration patterns, ecosystem alteration, and climate. While all victims of natural disasters face common challenges, displaced populations undergo distinct experiences that are specific to their relocation. However, measuring the mortality consequences of disasters among these populations is inherently challenging due to the displacement that can take place before, during or in the aftermath of an event. We use an interrupted time-series design to analyze all-cause mortality of Puerto Ricans in the U.S. to determine death occurrences of Puerto Ricans on the..

Economics of Human Migration

A Qualitative Study on How Perceptions of Environmental Changes are Linked to Migration in Morocco, Senegal, and DR Congo.

Abstract Environmental migration is a growing concern of academics and policymakers, who foresee a rise in the number of such migrants. However, most prevailing academic and policy discourses ignore the variety of perceptions of environmental changes among people living in highly affected areas across the world. We examine the perceptions of environmental changes and how these are seen to be relevant to migration in Senegal, DR Congo, and Morocco. In total, we conducted 410 interviews with people living in two regions in each of these countries. Results indicate differences in the perception of environmental changes across regions, gender, education, and livelihoods. The economic activities ..

Economics of Human Migration

Market Size and Spatial Growth - Evidence from Germany’s Post-War Population Expulsions

Virtually all theories of economic growth predict a positive relationship between population size and productivity. In this paper I study a particular historical episode to provide direct evidence for the empirical relevance of such scale effects. In the aftermath of the Second World War about 8m ethnic Germans were expelled from their domiciles in Eastern Europe and transferred to West Germany. This inflow increased the German population by almost 20%. Using variation across counties I show that the settlement of refugees had a large and persistent effect on the size of the local population, manufacturing employment and income per capita. I show that these findings are quantitatively consis..

Economics of Human Migration

When Labor Enforcement and Immigration Enforcement Collide: Deterring Worker Complaints Worsens Workplace Safety

Regulatory agencies overseeing the labor market often rely on worker complaints to direct their enforcement. However, if workers face differential barriers to complain, this system could result in ineffective targeting and create disparities in working conditions. To investigate these implications, we examine how the onset of Secure Communities—a localized immigration enforcement program—affected occupational safety and health. Counties’ participation in Secure Communities substantially reduced complaints to government safety regulators, but increased injuries, at workplaces with Hispanic workers. We show that these effects are most consistent with employers reducing safety inputs in r..

Economics of Human Migration

Housing property rights and social integration of migrant population: based on the 2017 china migrants' dynamic survey

Push-pull theory, one of the most important macro theories in demography, argues that population migration is driven by a combination of push (repulsive) forces at the place of emigration and pull (attractive) forces at the place of emigration. Based on the push-pull theory, this paper shows another practical perspective of the theory by measuring the reverse push and pull forces from the perspective of housing property rights. We use OLS and sequential Probit models to analyze the impact of urban and rural property rights factors on the social integration of the migrant population-based, on "China Migrants' Dynamic Survey". We found that after controlling for personal and urban characterist..

Economics of Human Migration

Functional instrumental variable regression with an application to estimating the impact of immigration on native wages

Functional linear regression gets its popularity as a statistical tool to study the relationship between function-valued response and exogenous explanatory variables. However, in practice, it is hard to expect that the explanatory variables of interest are perfectly exogenous, due to, for example, the presence of omitted variables and measurement errors, and this in turn limits the applicability of the existing estimators whose essential asymptotic properties, such as consistency, are developed under the exogeneity condition. To resolve this issue, this paper proposes new instrumental variable estimators for functional endogenous linear models, and establishes their asymptotic properties. We..

Economics of Human Migration

Children and Families Seeking Asylum in the UK

This CASEBrief provides a summary of new administrative data on children and families seeking asylum in the UK and those receiving support from the Home Office under the Asylum Support system. Much of the recent debate on asylum seekers in the UK focuses on adults, yet evidence suggests that a significant proportion of asylum seekers are children and their parents or carers. These early findings are part of Ilona Pinter's doctoral research looking at the needs, experiences and outcomes of children and families living on Asylum Support in the UK.

Economics of Human Migration

Socioemotional Skills and Refugees’ Language Acquisition

This paper contributes to the existing literature by extending Chiswick and Miller’s (2001) model to include socioemotional skills. While the theoretical model predicts that exposure, efficiency, and incentives determine language proficiency, we additionally assume that socioemotional skills influence these three constructs and thereby language proficiency. Specifically, we seek to answer the following research questions: How do socioemotional skills affect the language attainment of recent refugees? What is the relative importance of socioemotional skills in refugees’ language learning process? Given the findings of the prior literature that personality traits may compensate f..

Economics of Human Migration

Borrowing Constraints and the Dynamics of Return and Repeat Migrations

As wages in migrant sending countries catch up with those in destinations, migrants adjust on several margins, including their duration of stay, the number of migrations they undertake, as well as the amount saved while abroad. This paper combines Mexican and U.S. data to estimate a dynamic model of consumption, emigration and re-migration, accounting for financial constraints. An increase in Mexican household earnings shortens migration duration, but raises the number of trips per migrant. For lower-income migrants, a rise in Mexican wages leads to a more than proportional effect on consumption expenditure in Mexico, arising from repatriated savings.

Economics of Human Migration

Empirical modelling of internal migration and commuting flows for economic regions in Norway

This paper provides empirical results for internal migration and commuting flows using panel data for 89 economic regions in Norway for the years 2001-2014. The emphasis is on the potential effects of different incentive variables. We consider both in- and out-migration as well as in- and outcommuting with a common set of explanatory variables. We perform panel data analysis for four educational groups using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) models, acknowledging that the effects of the incentive variables may vary across educational groups. Generally, we find weak responses to the incentive variables for the eight response variables, but they differ somewhat across the educational groups..

Economics of Human Migration

What makes us move, what makes us stay: The role of culture in intra-EU mobility

This article analyses the determinants of international migration flows within the European Union and specifically focuses on the role of cultural and linguistic differences in explaining the size of these flows. For that purpose, a set of indicators of cultural distance are controlled for along with economic, demographic, geographical, political and network variables using data from 28 member states of the European Union over the period 1998-2018. Economic factors play an important role in examining migration flows, but economic differentials alone may be insufficient to explain the uneven real-life migration pattern in the EU. The results suggest strong evidence of the importance of lingui..

Economics of Human Migration

Immigration and Occupational Comparative Advantage

Job choice by high-skilled foreign-born workers in the US correlates strongly with country of origin. We apply a Fréchet-Roy model of occupational choice to evaluate the causes of immigrant sorting. In a gravity specification, we find that revealed comparative advantage in the US is stronger for workers from countries with higher education quality in occupations that are more intensive in cognitive reasoning, and for workers from countries that are more linguistically similar to the US in occupations that are more intensive in communication. Our findings hold for immigrants who arrived in the US at age 18 or older (who received their K-12 education abroad) but not for immigrants who arrived..

Economics of Human Migration

Getting Off on the Wrong Foot: The Long-Term Effects of Missing a Large-Scale Amnesty for Immigrant Workers

We estimate the long-run effects of ineligibility for legalization on immigrants' formal employment and assimilation at work. Our empirical approach exploits the exogenous change in probability of obtaining legal status induced by a 2002 Italian amnesty program targeting irregular foreign workers. We show that immigrants unexposed to the amnesty have a 15% lower probability of being regularly employed a decade later than their counterparts. They also experience a deterioration in their working conditions in the long run, with increases in job immobility and segregation, and a decline in linguistic assimilation.

Economics of Human Migration

Postbellum Electoral Politics in California and the Genesis of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

After the Civil War, the Democratic party carried an important electoral penalty from being associated with the war. To deal with this penalty, the party took increasingly anti-immigration positions to compete with Republicans. This led some Republican strongholds such as California to become competitive and also forced Republicans to embrace stricter immigration proposals. In this paper, we argue that adopting anti-immigration and raising awareness against immigration made California increasingly competitive in electoral terms. This electoral competitiveness can serve to explain the genesis of the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.

Economics of Human Migration

Gravitational Effects of Culture on Internal Migration in Brazil

This paper conducts empirical research about the role of culture on internal migration in Brazil. To do so, we deploy data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) and the 2010 Brazilian Census. Against the background of the gravitational model, we adopt the method Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood with Fixed Effects (PPMLFE) to account for econometric issues. The results obtained provide new evidence on the influence of the migrant’s perceptions about the push-pull factors of Brazilian municipalities. Traditionally, gravitational models apply features such as Gross Domestic Product per capita, unemployment rate, and population density to measure the attractiveness of cities...

Economics of Human Migration

Entrepreneurial Migration

We use cross-state business registrations to track the geographic movement of startups with high growth potential. In their first five years, 6.6% percent of these startups move across state borders. Though startup births are concentrated geographically, hubs like Silicon Valley and Boston on net lose startups to entrepreneurial migration. A revealed preference approach nonparametrically identifies the average utility of cities to migrant founders. University towns and startup hubs have low relative utility. This pattern is due neither to vertical sorting nor industrial specialization. The higher-quality startups move to lower-tax, business-friendly cities, while less growth-oriented startup..

Economics of Human Migration

The Economic Attainment of Mexican Refugees during the Age of Mass Migration

Research on immigrant economic integration generally focuses on the influence of human capital on later occupational success. This research, however, often ignores other individual-level and contextual-level influences on later attainment and when in settlement they are likely to matter. We therefore create a unique panel dataset that follows a Mexican refugee population from arrival and through settlement in the early twentieth century. This novel data source allows us to examine both individual and contextual characteristics on occupational attainment at different points in time. Our analyses show that individual characteristics beyond human capital measures are likely to matter at first a..

Economics of Human Migration

Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the United States

Immigrants can expand labor supply and compete for jobs with native-born workers. But immigrants may also start new firms, expanding labor demand. This paper uses U.S. administrative data and other data sources to study the role of immigrants in entrepreneurship. We ask how often immigrants start companies, how many jobs these firms create, and how firms founded by native-born individuals compare. A simple model provides a measurement framework for addressing the dual roles of immigrants as founders and workers. The findings suggest that immigrants act more as "job creators" than "job takers" and play outsized roles in U.S. high-growth entrepreneurship.

Economics of Human Migration

Addressing the Impact of Border Enforcement Measures on the Self-Reported Health of Migrants Aiming to Enter Japan During the COVID-19 Epidemic.

Following the spread of COVID-19 in early 2020, Japan has implemented border enforcement measures to ban most foreigners, including tourists, workers and students from entering Japan for the time being, except for special humanitarian circumstances. For about a year, many migrants have been unable to enter Japan and had to postpone their plans. Using an online questionnaire (N=478), this study aimed to assess the impact of border enforcement measures on migrants’ health and wellbeing. Results indicate that border enforcement measures have generated insecurities, both from a financial and personal point of view. These have had strong negative effects on physical health and, to a greater ext..

Economics of Human Migration

Matching across Markets: An Economic Analysis of Cross-Border Marriage

Severe gender imbalances coupled with the stark income differences across countries are driving an increase in cross-border marriages in many Asian countries. This paper theoretically and empirically studies who marries whom, including how cross-border couples are selected, and how marital surplus is allocated within couples in the marriage markets of Taiwan (a wealthier side with male-biased sex ratios) and Vietnam (a poorer side with balanced sex ratios). Among the cross-border marriages that are predominantly made up of Taiwanese men and Vietnamese women, I nd that Taiwanese men are selected from the middle level of the socioeconomic status distribution, and Vietnamese women are positivel..

Economics of Human Migration

Sharing the little there is : towards a durable refugee-host relationship in Northern Uganda

This paper explores the nature of the relationship between South Sudanese refugees and their Ugandan hosts. Situated in northern Uganda, a context characterized by chronic underdevelopment and poverty, it examines if and how peaceful coexistence between nationals and refugees is maintained. Overall, their relationship can be described as ‘cordial’. However, based on extensive fieldwork, including interviews with refugees, local leaders and settlement authorities, three critical challenges are identified. Most importantly, the management of land currently is and will remain a critical challenge. While unstable conditions in South Sudan do not yet allow a safe and voluntary repatriation, o..

Economics of Human Migration

School Integration of Refugee Children: Evidence from the Largest Refugee Group in any Country

Although school integration of the children of economic migrants in developed countries is well-studied in the literature, little evidence based on large scale representative data exists on the school integration of refugee children—many of whom live in low- or middle-income countries. This study focuses on Syrian refugee children in Turkey and examines the underlying causes of the native-refugee differences in school enrollment. We also analyze employment and marriage outcomes, as they are potentially jointly determined with schooling. For this purpose, we use the 2018 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, which includes a representative sample of Syrian refugee households. We find that ..

Economics of Human Migration

French Female Managers from North African origin: an integration "à la française"

The integration process of migrants from a different culture is an important subject in developed countries, especially in France. Due to its colonial past, France has welcomed many workers from North Africa since the 60s. This first generation was composed of non-skilled workers who occupied jobs mostly in the industrial sector. This immigration was supposed to be temporary and the immigrants, mostly men, were not supposed to become French let alone be integrated in French society. However, after several years, most of these workers arranged the immigration of their spouses and founded households in France. This settlement was not really anticipated in France and from the early 80s onward, ..

Economics of Human Migration

Earnings Inequality and Immobility for Hispanics and Asians: An Examination of Variation Across Subgroups

Our analysis provides the rst disaggregated examination of earnings inequality and immobility within the Hispanic ethnic group and the Asian race group in the U.S. over the period of 2005-2015. Our analysis differentiates between long-term immigrant and native-born Hispanics and Asians relative to recent immigrants to the U.S. (post 2005) and new labor market entrants. Our results show that for the Asian and Hispanic population aged 18-45, earnings inequality is constant or slightly decreasing for the long-term immigrant and native-born populations. However, including new labor market entrants and recent immigrants to the U.S. contributes significantly to the earnings inequality for these gr..

Economics of Human Migration